A synthetic, nonsteroidal derivative of phenyl-furanone with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties and potential antineoplastic properties.
Rofecoxib binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), resulting in an inhibition of the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins.
COX-related metabolic pathways may represent key regulators of cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis. Some epithelial tumor cell types overexpress pro-angiogenic COX-2.
Note: Since 2004 rofecoxib is not available in the market because of concerns about increased risk of heart attack and stroke associated with long-term, high-dosage use.