Techniques used to help patients cope with their pain and deal with emotional factors that can increase pain.
Chronic pain and physical limitations can have great psychological and emotional effects on a person with pain-related problems. Living with pain can lead to problems including depression, anxiety, and helplessness, all of which can exacerbate pain and disability.
consists of 3 phases:
- education about biopsychosocial model of pain;
- skills training, such as relaxation techniques, activity pacing, pleasant activity scheduling, imagery techniques, distraction strategies, cognitive restructuring (changing negative thought patterns), problems solving and goal setting; and
- the application phase, which is practice and application of the skills in real-life situations.
is characterized by:
- solving problems
- seeking information
- seeking social support
- seeking professional help
- changing environments
- planning activities in response to some stress, physical or emotional.
This is to avoid coping strategies that can lead people into activities (such as alcohol use) or mental states (such as withdrawal) that keep them from directly addressing the stressful event.
Adapted from Republic of Rwanda Ministry of Health. Pain management guidelines. Accessed on January 25, 2016.