Neurologic complications occur in more than 40% of patients with HIV infection.
They are the presenting feature of AIDS in 10-20% of cases. At autopsy, the prevalence of neuropathologic abnormalities is 80%.
Although an ongoing decline in HIV-associated CNS disease has been observed in very recent years, the mortality from these diseases remains high.
CNS complications that accompany HIV infection
- HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder
- Vacuolar myelopathy
- Certain peripheral neuropathies
Conditions secondary to immunodeficiency
- CNS lymphoma
- Kaposi sarcoma
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
- Fungal infections (e.g., cryptococcal meningitis, Penicillium marneffei encephalitis)
- Tuberculous meningitis
- Cerebrovascular diseases
- Certain neuropathies and myopathies
- Cytomegalovirus encephalitis
Some neurologic conditions are caused by antiretroviral drugs. In addition, AIDS patients are susceptible to the same neurologic diseases as patients who do not have HIV infection.
See reference for details.
Adapted from Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Central nervous system complications in HIV. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1167008-overview. Accessed February 15, 2016. To view the entire article and all other content on the Medscape Drugs & Diseases site, a free, one-time registration is required.