A life-threatening medical condition that consists of rapid deterioration in kidney function in individuals with cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure.
Hepatorenal syndrome is a particular and common type of kidney failure that affects individuals with liver cirrhosis or, less commonly, with fulminant liver failure. The syndrome involves constriction of the blood vessels of the kidneys and dilation of blood vessels in the splanchnic circulation, which supplies the intestines.
The classification of hepatorenal syndrome identifies two categories of kidney failure, termed type 1
and type 2
HRS. Both types occur in individuals with either cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure, and the deterioration in kidney function is quantified either by an elevation in creatinine level in the blood, or by decreased clearance of creatinine in the urine.
Both types of hepatorenal syndrome share three major components:
- altered liver function,
- abnormalities in circulation, and
- kidney failure.
As these phenomena may not necessarily produce symptoms until late in their course, individuals with hepatorenal syndrome are typically diagnosed with the condition on the basis of altered laboratory tests. Most people who develop HRS have cirrhosis, and may have signs and symptoms of the same, which can include jaundice, altered mental status, evidence of decreased nutrition, and the presence of ascites.
See reference for more information about treatments.
Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Internet. Accessed on December 17, 2020.