The socially constructed characteristics of women and men, such as norms, roles, and relationships of and between groups of women and men.
It varies from society to society and can be changed.
While most people are born either male or female, they are taught appropriate norms and behaviors – including how they should interact with others of the same or opposite sex within households, communities, and workplaces. When individuals or groups do not “fit” established gender norms they often face stigma, discriminatory practices, or social exclusion – all of which adversely affect health. It is important to be sensitive to different identities that do not necessarily fit into binary male or female sex categories.
Gender norms, roles, and relations influence people’s susceptibility to different health conditions and diseases, and affect their enjoyment of good mental, physical health, and well-being. They also have a bearing on people’s access to and uptake of health services and on the health outcomes they experience throughout the life-course.
World Health Organization. Gender, equity and human rights. Internet. Accessed on July 3, 2016.