Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome that represents an elevated risk of tragic deteriorations in health and function among older adults. It is a condition associated with ageing, and it is defined as a syndrome with multiple causes and contributors that is characterized by diminished strength, endurance, and reduced physiologic function that increases an individual's vulnerability for developing increased dependency and/or death.
The suggested biological bases of frailty are multifactorial, implicating dysregulation across many physiological systems. A proinflammatory state, sarcopenia, anemia, relative deficiencies in anabolic hormones and excess exposure to catabolic hormones, insulin resistance, glucose levels, compromised altered immune function, micronutrient deficiencies and oxidative stress are each individually associated with a higher likelihood of frailty. It is an expression of a critical mass of physiologic impairments.
The risk of frailty increases with the number of dysregulated physiological systems independent of chronic diseases and chronologic age: the clinical implication is that interventions that affect multiple systems may generate greater, synergistic benefits in prevention and treatment of frailty.
Associations exist between cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and other diseases in which inflammation is important. However, no single disease state is necessary and sufficient for the pathogenesis of frailty, since many individuals with chronic diseases are not frail.
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Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Internet. Accessed on November 6, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frailty_syndrome