Steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, together with the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone and aldosterone.
such as cortisol affect carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, and have different effects:
• anti-inflammatory — by blocking the action of inflammatory mediators and inducing anti-inflammatory mediators
• immunosuppressive — by suppressing delayed hypersensitivity reactions by direct action on T-lymphocyte
• anti-proliferative — by inhibition of DNA synthesis and epidermal cell turnover
• vasoconstrictive — by inhibiting the action of inflammatory mediators such as histidine
such as aldosterone are primarily involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance by modulating ion transport in the epithelial cells of the renal tubules of the kidney.
Use of corticosteroids has numerous adverse-effects.
• Severe amebic colitis.
• Neuropsychiatric: steroid psychosis, anxiety and depression — partly mediated by sensitization of the body to the actions of adrenaline.
• Cardiovascular: sodium retention that can result in fluid retention and hypertension.
• Metabolic: movement of body fat to the face and torso. They are considered anti-anabolic, and long-term therapy can cause muscle wasting.
• Endocrine: hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus.
• Skeletal: osteoporosis may be a side effect of long-term corticosteroid use.
• Gastrointestinal: the evidence for causing peptic ulceration is relatively poor, except for high doses taken for more than a month.
• Eyes: chronic use may predispose to cataract and glaucoma.
• Vulnerability to infection: may cause infections to flare up, notably candidiasis.
• Pregnancy: low but significant teratogenic effect – they are contraindicated in pregnancy.
• Habituation: topical steroid addiction has been reported in long-term users of topical steroids (users who applied topical steroids to their skin over a period of weeks, months, or years).
See reference for more information.
Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Internet. Accessed on May 2, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corticosteroid