The biopsychosocial model was first proposed by Engel GE and Romano R in 1977. As opposed to the biomedical approach, Engel strived for a more complete approach by recognizing that each patient has their own thoughts, feelings, and history; he framed this model for both illnesses and psychological problems.
The biopsychosocial model reflects the development of illness through the complex interaction of biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors. Examples include: a) a person may have a genetic predisposition for depression, but they must have social factors, such as extreme stress at work and family life, as well as psychological factors, such as a perfectionistic tendencies, to trigger this genetic code for depression; b) a person may have a genetic predisposition for a disease, but social and cognitive factors must trigger the illness.
Engel revolutionized medical thinking by reintroducing the idea of mind/body dualism (René Descartes) that was forgotten during the biomedical approach.
After Engel's publication, the biopsychosocial model was adopted by the World Health Organization in 2002 as a basis for the International Classification of Function (ICF).
The biopsychosocial model is still widely used as a psychological model. The biological, psychological, and social categories have expanded into bigger categories: specifically, the social aspect has greatly expanded through ideas such as spirituality and culture.
Even if all aspects do not apply to the situation, the biopsychosocial model is widely used to organize one's thoughts. It shows that a person's problems are all connected, and they may be more complex than previously imagined.
See reference for more information.
Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Internet. Accessed on January 12, 2020.