Anticonvulsants are used for the control of seizures and as adjuvant analgesics for the treatment of pain, particularly neuropathic pain.
Anticonvulsant agents are divided into large groups based on their mechanisms of action:
- Blockers of repetitive activation of the sodium channel: phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine
- Enhancer of slow inactivation of the sodium channel: lacosamide, rufinamide
- Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)–A receptor enhancers: phenobarbital, benzodiazepines, clobazam
- NMDA receptor blockers: felbamate
- AMPA receptor blockers: perampanel, topiramate
- T-calcium channel blockers: ethosuximide, valproate
- N- and L-calcium channel blockers: lamotrigine
- H-current modulators: gabapentin
- Blockers of unique binding sites: gabapentin
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: topiramate
- Neuronal potassium channel opener: ezogabine
(+) Refers to drugs with multiple mechanism of action.
Adapted from Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Epilepsy and seizures. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1184846-overview. Accessed on September 25, 2016. To view the entire article and all other content on the Medscape Drugs & Diseases site, a free, one-time registration is required.