Some main types of hemostasis used in emergency medicine include:
Chemical/topical - This is a topical agent often used in surgery settings to stop bleeding - microfibrillar collagen is the most popular choice it attracts the patient's natural platelets and starts the blood clotting process when it comes in contact with the platelets. Direct pressure or pressure dressing - Putting pressure and/or dressing to a bleeding wound slows the process of blood loss, allowing for more time to get to an emergency medical setting. Sutures and ties - They allow for skin to be joined back together allowing for platelets to start the process of hemostasis at a quicker pace. Physical agents - A gelatin sponges sponge quickly stops or reduces the amount of bleeding present; these sponges absorb blood, allow for coagulation to occur faster, and give off chemical responses that decrease the time it takes for the hemostasis pathway to start.
A medicament or topical application capable of reducing / stopping localized bleeding.
When it occurs in the bladder ethamsylate may be the best oral haemostatic or alum solution per catheter then retained in the bladder for as long as it is bearable.
Persistent bleeding from skin lesions usually responds to absorbable sponges, adrenaline soaked pads or alum applied topically under pressure pads.
Serious, life-threatening hemorrhage can occur anywhere in the body and is often seen in palliative care patients. In some cases surgical intervention may be clinically and ethically the best course of action.
Woodruff R. Palliative Medicine: evidence-based symptomatic and supportive care for patients with advanced cancer. Fourth edition. London. Oxford University Press. 2004. Pages 331-2.