Resources spent in carrying out activities; also the benefits sacrificed through a particular event of choice of action rather than another.
- Opportunity costs
, the value of benefits foregone by failure to apply the resources to the most productive alternative cost
- Marginal costs
, the extra cost of increasing output by one unit
- Variable costs
: costs that vary with changes in output volume, such as the material required to provide a service
- Fixed costs
: costs which do not vary with quantity or volume of output provided, at least in the short run (e.g. rent for space)
- Resource costs
: resources used in the production of goods and services
- User cost
: cost to the user of purchasing or making use of a product.
: all the goods, services and other resources that are consumed in the provision of a particular service or area (e.g. hospital supplies), including medical costs
(e.g. payments to providers, material) and non-medical costs
(e.g. transportation to hospital).
: total sum of morbidity costs
(goods and services not produced by the patient because of the illness), mortality costs
(goods and services the person could have produced had the illness not been incurred and the person not died prematurely), and productivity cost
(related to lost productivity incurred by an employee who leaves work to provide care for the patient); intangible costs
: usually used in economic evaluation, to indicate features like pain, anxiety or grief, which cannot be directly quantified in monetary terms.
World Health Organization. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Glossary. 2009.