Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumors and neoplasms. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs; the latter process is referred to as metastasizing. Metastases are the major cause of death from cancer.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most common causes of cancer death are:
- lung cancer (1.59 million deaths)
- liver cancer (745,000 deaths)
- stomach cancer (723,000 deaths)
- colorectal cancer (694,000 deaths)
- breast cancer (521,000 deaths)
- oesophageal cancer (400,000 deaths).
What causes cancer?
Cancer arises from one single cell. The transformation from a normal cell into a tumor cell is a multistage process, typically a progression from a precancerous lesion to malignant tumors. These changes are the result of the interaction between a person's genetic factors and three categories of external agents, including:
- physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation;
- chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant), and arsenic (a drinking water contaminant); and
- biological carcinogens, such as infections from certain viruses, bacteria or parasites.
Ageing is another fundamental factor for the development of cancer. The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, most likely due to a buildup of risks for specific cancers that increase with age. The overall risk accumulation is combined with the tendency for cellular repair mechanisms to be less effective as a person grows older.
Risk factors for cancers
Tobacco use, alcohol use, an unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are the main cancer risk factors worldwide. Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer and have major relevance in low- and middle-income countries.
Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk for liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of cancer, such as cervical cancer.
See reference for details.
World Health Organization. Health topics. Internet. Accessed on May 27, 2016.